It’s time to think summer! Ensure your children can be part of all the Tom Denney Nature Camp action! Campers enjoy getting out in nature, exploring, and learning new skills while bonding with friends and making new friends.
Tom Denney Nature Camp: Registration for Summer 2024 is now open! Register before April 1st and receive the Early Bird Discount! Here’s an overview of what to expect by age group:
Kindergarten – 5th grade: Games in the fields and woods. Swimming, Predator, and Prey (all-camp tag game), Amazing Race (physical & mental team challenges), arts & crafts, tracking, hiking, shelter building, campfires & more!
9 am – 3 pm (before and after care available)
6th -9th grades: Eco Adventures program with kayaking, laser tag, night camping & s’mores.
9 am – 3pm: (9 am – 10 pm on Thursdays for a night camping experience)
9th grade & above: Counselor-in-Training program (M-F 8:45 am – 3:15 pm)
Play games with campers and have fun with friends while gaining experience and volunteer/leadership hours. Involves an orientation and a minimum of two weeks of attendance.
There are many ways to discover Bolton, Massachusetts. There is the apple and peach picking at local orchards, the wine tasting at Nashoba Valley Winery, the farms with produce, flowers, and cider donuts, the unique shops on Main Street, the great coffee and food at the Bolton Bean, or the fun, food, and music of Slater’s.
However, we’ll start this ‘Discover Bolton’ series with a great way to explore the natural beauty of Bolton, and potentially ‘win’ a hat featuring seven summits and an apple tree.
The Bolton Trails Committee has created an Official Guide that lists the summits and starting locations. Here’s how it works: “This challenge requires the participants to reach the summit of seven of our hills, starting at designated trailheads,” notes the website. “Those who participate in this challenge, and fill out the Official Form, can earn a limited-edition hat as a token of appreciation.” To ensure the appreciation goes to all ages, the hats come in adult and youth sizes.
To explain this challenge: Director of the Bolton Conservation Trust and Bolton Trails Committee volunteer Drew Schaubhut, who is also a Bolton resident. In this ‘Discover Bolton’ Q&A, Schaubhut has details about the summits and ‘pro tips’ to make the most of your experience:
Describe your position with the Bolton Trails Committee and the Bolton Conservation Trust and what got you involved?
A: I’m a volunteer and part of the Steering Committee for the Bolton Trails Committee, and recently as of 2023 have joined the Bolton Conservation Trust as a Director. I started helping out with the Bolton Trails Committee shortly after I moved to Bolton in 2015. I enjoy hiking, mountain biking, and generally exploring new areas. Since I was using the trails in the town, I felt obligated to help by making them better. This includes planning and creating new trails in addition to maintaining (clearing and marking) the 45+ miles of trails in Bolton so others can enjoy them.
What motivated the Bolton Trails Committee to create this challenge?
A: We really just want more folks out enjoying their local trails. We wanted an achievable challenge that individuals or families could enjoy together.
Can you describe the highlights or interesting facts about each of the seven summits listed?
A: Wattaquadock Hill is the highest point in Bolton. The true summit is on private land, but there is an old observation tower foundation with a USGS summit marker ON conservation land. See if you can find it.
A: North Peak is one of the highest points between Boston and Mt. Wachusett (in addition to Wattaquadock). This hike has the most elevation gain of any of the seven summits in the Summit Series Challenge. I’d recommended exploring the Vaughn Hills area, especially the trail directly to the east of the North Peak parallel to Bare Hill Road, and of course the beaver pond located just south of North Peak. You can probably see some herons and ospreys nesting in the dead trees within the pond depending on the time of year. The best chance is spring/summer.
A: The true summit of Peach Hill is actually on private land in Berlin, but the highest point on conservation land is very close. The Fyfeshire Pond and Dam are always pleasant to walk by and enjoy the scenery.
A: Probably my favorite area, being such a large undisturbed area right in the middle of town. The summit is NOT at the Powder House historical building – where the town’s gunpowder supply was required to be stored when it was built in 1812. The summit is actually on the other side of the gas line toward the Quail Run Road trailhead.
A: There are no Rattlesnakes on Rattlesnake Hill. I repeat…There are no Rattlesnakes on Rattlesnake Hill. There may be a few mountain bikers and hikers, but definitely no rattlesnakes. There is a Wildflower Walk and an Ecology Walk (Bob Horton Trail) right out of the Lime Kiln entrance
A: We don’t keep track of usage, but this is probably the least visited conservation in town. At the summit, if you follow the stone wall to the northwest, you will be rewarded with viewing arguably the largest maple tree in town.
Pro Tip: Take the more gradual route to the summit as indicated on the conservation area map. The alternative is a little shorter in length but very steep.
A: The Annie Moore property is probably one of the most quintessential New England conservation areas, which includes long straight stone walls through areas including oak forests, wetlands, orchards, and farms. It’s the longest hike to reach a summit on the list, but also a fairly gradual walk to reach Annie Moore Road from Bolton Woods Way. The actual summit of Long Hill is on private land, but the trailhead at Annie Moore Road is pretty close.
A: We are hoping to inspire more people to explore their community and get to know the vast network of conservation areas we have in this town. There are so many studies indicating the physical and mental health benefits of being outside and being active, that any way we could encourage our neighbors to get outside more will really benefit everyone.
How hard is it to complete this challenge and is there a deadline?
A: These are not overly challenging hikes, and can be done at any pace. The trail surface can be rocky or have roots, which is very typical in New England. Some sections can be a little steep, as these are hikes up to the top of a hill, but the trails are designed for a majority of users to be able to walk on them, including kids. As long as you have some sturdy shoes (a.k.a. no flip-flops) you should be fine. My plan is to have my 6-year-old to complete this challenge if that helps others gauge the challenge level of these hikes.
What should people know if they are not regular hikers?
How can people get involved or help the Bolton Trails Committee and the Bolton Conservation Trust?
A: The Bolton Trails Committee is always looking for more help. We could use some more “trail adopters”, which are simply just people that walk certain trails regularly and report any issues they come across. We have a mailing list that we use to recruit help for work parties and special projects. The biggest need is getting more people to be project leaders on these conservation area improvement projects throughout town. The Bolton Conservation Trust is always looking for more people to help as well.
A: These public conservation lands are meant for the public to use and enjoy. I’d encourage everyone to take advantage of the great resources our town has to offer. Although our town does not have a lot of typical “services”, we are rich in publicly accessible land.
Limited edition adult and youth-sized hats go to those who complete the 2023 Summit Series Challenge. If you look closely at the logo there are seven hills to indicate each of the peaks of the Summit Series Challenge.
As The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a new standard regulating PFAS chemicals in public drinking water supplies, many are wondering: What does this mean for local well water?
To delve into this topic, we talk with Liz Schoepke, co-founder of SafeWell in Bolton, to find out what it means and the best approaches to ensuring well water safety.
First, here’s some background with links to more information:
What are PFAS and how big a problem is this?
Communities around the United States and the world are grappling with what to do about PFAS. Short for ‘per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances,’ PFAS are a family of human-made chemicals found in thousands of products ranging from firefighting foam, stain-resistant products, and waterproof makeup to fast food containers, microwave popcorn bags, and Teflon pans. Even basic products like toilet paper are contributing to the problem.
The U.S. has had a long history of PFAS use. Though manufactured for more than 50 years, PFAS were not widely documented in environmental samples until the early 2000s.
In recent years, it’s been shown that PFAS have made it into numerous water systems, including the ocean and many drinking water sources. The Environmental Working Group has an interactive map that shows areas where PFAS have been found in the U.S. If a community shows as not affected, there’s a good chance there hasn’t been testing.
Massachusetts is among the states leading the nation in setting guidelines for PFAS in drinking water. Since October 2020, the state has had guidelines that call for lower levels—20 parts per trillion (ppt) rather than 70 ppt. However, in June 2022, the EPA set advisories calling for levels close to zero. On March 14, 2023, the EPA settled on a proposal to set guidelines at 4 ppt for 2 types of PFAS (PFOA and PFOS). It would also regulate mixtures of 4 other types of PFAS ( PFNA, PFHxS, PFBS, and GenX Chemicals). If finalized, the proposed regulation will require public water systems to monitor these PFAS, and, if levels exceed the proposed guidelines, notify the public and reduce levels.
To help prepare communities: the EPA announced plans in February 2023 to help states clean up PFAS in drinking water and hold polluters responsible. The federal nationwide effort includes funding to Massachusetts. Funds will, in part, go to communities in need of assistance to add filtration systems to municipal water treatment facilities to remove PFAS. This can be extremely expensive. For instance, the town of Littleton recently spent $16 million dollars to enhance filtration.
What about well water?
While municipal water sources are upgrading filtration systems, homeowners with private wells across the country and state have been largely left to figure it out on their own. The EPA did update its well water page regarding PFAS contamination.
Overall, there are a lot of unknowns for homeowners who are now faced with the question: “Do I need to test, and what do I do if PFAS levels are high?”
For some answers, we contacted SafeWell of Bolton. The company’s co-founder, Bolton resident Liz Schoepke, is very familiar with monitoring and managing PFAS contamination. “SafeWell has tested thousands of wells across Massachusetts,” she notes. “Generally, more than 50% have detectable levels of PFAS, and some discover alarming levels (hundreds of ppt) and there may not be an obvious source in the vicinity.”
The following Q&A with Schoepke provides additional answers for homeowners:
Q: How would you describe the extent of the PFAS problem locally and nationally?
A:As with a “new” discovery of chemical contamination, the early focus was on figuring out where and what were the sources of hotspots. This included industrial operations known to manufacture or use PFAS and fire stations and airports where PFAS-containing fire-fighting foam was used, and landfills where PFAS-contaminated waste had been disposed. However, over time, as PFAS were detected in groundwater that didn’t appear to be directly influenced by obvious sources, we learned that “natural” fertilizer made with wastewater sewage plant sludge and pulp and paper waste could contain high levels of PFAS. All that to say, PFAS may be a “forever chemical,” but I call it the “everywhere chemical.”
Q: What were the findings of the MassDEP well sampling program?
A: I have crunched the final data and can summarize: 59 of the 84 towns had detectable levels of PFAS in private wells, of which 21 towns had levels >20 ppt, and 5 towns had levels >90 ppt.
Bolton had 10 detections (>2 ppt) out of 25 samples (highest result 13.2 ppt); Lancaster no tests (apparently not more than 60% private wells); Stow had 20 out of 42 detections, 9 over 20 ppt, but there is an ongoing testing and remediation project, focused on town center, where there were detections as high as 500 ppt. The Town of Stow is paying to install treatment systems in homes* where PFAS is detected greater than 20 pp. (* Only homes that are part of the project; higher detections outside of the project area are on their own to install treatment.)
Q: How will new PFAS guidelines affect homeowners with wells?
A: Not at all, in an enforceable way, unless a particular Board of Health includes PFAS in their list of things to test in well water. However, EPA and MassDEP limits are the guidelines well owners are encouraged to meet in their own well water quality. So, in a sense, homeowners who learn that PFAS are in their groundwater can refer to these limits as goals to meet when choosing a treatment option.
Q: If you have a well in or around Bolton should you test it?
A: Absolutely! Consider whether there are any potential sources near your location: fire department, landfill (active, inactive, or even old family “dump”), commercial/agricultural or residential fertilizer application (including golf courses).
Q: How do you get it tested and how does it work?
A: Because MassDEP regulates only 6 PFAS chemicals (combined limit 20 ppt), we recommend that homeowners test only for “MA PFAS-6.” Homeowners have at least two options for this:
Get a PFAS sample collection kit from a certified lab (we like Alpha Analytical in Marlboro, which does not take “walk ins”, but Nashoba Analytical in Ayer will either provide kits or take samples which they have analyzed at Alpha Analytical), follow detailed sampling instructions (e.g., no clothing or personal care products that could contain PFAS, etc.), take the sample to the lab, and the lab provides a detailed report.
Experienced technicians who have been specifically trained in PFAS sampling
Simple-to-understand health-based interpretation of the results
Counseling to explain options and provides treatment/filtration to address PFAS
Q: If PFAS contamination is found, what happens next?
A: First, consider what level of risk you are willing to live with. We strongly recommend installing treatment if PFAS exceeds the MassDEP MCL of 20 ppt; any PFAS below that level: it’s a personal choice.
Know that pregnant women, babies, young children, and anyone with a compromised immune system are at the greatest risk from the health effects from PFAS.
Effective treatment options can be found online, at DIY stores, or with professional treatment system companies. It’s not unusual for homeowners (or their plumbers) to install their own systems to treat PFAS, only to discover they are not effective; they could be the wrong size, wrong materials, not certified, incorrectly plumbed, the list goes on. If you choose to treat your water, do your research.
Different options for treatment/filtration include whole-house (point-of-entry treats all the water used throughout the home, typically carbon filtration and requires professional installation) and point-of-use, which can include under-sink units which filter all water at one particular tap, or a personal water filter (like CycloPure’s Purefast cartridge which fits a Brita filter).
Q: If a homeowner decides on a personal water filter, what should they look for in a filter?
A: An NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) label is a good start. However, NSF standards for PFAS removal are based on EPA’s old level of 70 ppt – that won’t do anyone much good! Actually, it’s a good idea to start with a certified product (NSF, WQA, UL, IAPMO), then look at the product’s specifications: most will specify a percent removal for PFAS. I wouldn’t accept a product that has a less than 95% removal rate.
Whatever filter (or filtration system) you choose MUST BE maintained (such as replacing the filter cartridges or changing the tanks) on a regular basis – at least as frequently as the manufacturer recommends. You cannot know – unless you test – when the filter has “run out” and PFAS are getting through.
Also very important: if you have an existing reverse-osmosis filtration system (RO), if maintained properly, it will remove PFAS; however, if you are on a septic system, MassDEP advises against using RO for removing PFAS since the concentrated PFAS waste stream will basically be discharged back to the environment.
Q: Can boiling water actually make the PFAS worse?
A: Yes, as with many other water contaminants, boiling water can further concentrate PFAS.
Q: Will levels go down over time? How often do you need to retest?
A: PFAS have been around for such a long time that we can’t predict that groundwater levels will go down or up over time. In many cases, the contamination has been moving through our groundwater for so many years that the PFAS level at your location could go down, but, because groundwater is always moving, a contaminated plume could also increase your PFAS level.
If PFAS have been detected in your well, and you chose not to treat/filter, it wouldn’t be a bad idea to re-test every few 1-3 years.
Q: What is the expense to test for PFAS?
A: That’s the bad news: PFAS analysis is expensive. A mail-in test to MyTapScore.com is $299, Nashoba Analytical charges $400. Full service sampling, analysis and reporting with SafeWell is $438 (only PFAS testing) or $269 (if adding PFAS to other water quality testing).
Q: There are funds being set aside for MA under the EPA plan; would these funds help local well owners?
A: My understanding is that these funds are designated for public water systems to install treatment. Generally, private well owners are mostly on their own. There may be, however, grants and loans available from RCAP Solutions and the USDA for private well treatment. These grant options assume financial need and probably “imminent danger” in the water quality, and are not necessarily for people who want to install treatment and find it expensive. The Private Well Class’s Funding page is a good place for folks to start their research. [There is also an in-depth Well Class video focused on funding and financing options]
[Note: For specific local questions, request information from the Town of Bolton or your town of residence. The EPA addresses PFAS cleanup funding (#18), but funding specifics are vague. MA state funding programs are generally geared toward community water supplies. If the source of PFAS contamination is evident, there may be options for reimbursement.]
Q: Some residents are concerned testing could affect their home values. What are your thoughts on that?
A: I get that, and it’s probably true today. However, remember that it is unlikely that a homeowner or particular property will be found liable for the PFAS contamination in their well. It’s better to know if PFAS are in your water and be able to treat them to protect your family’s health. I may be exaggerating here, but if every well is determined to have some level of PFAS, the best protection is to install and maintain a treatment system; this will become a positive selling point in the future.
Q: How do you think newer limits will impact this area?
A: Legally, these limits have no direct bearing on private well owners, except as guidance for whether or not to treat.
One of my biggest concerns is that, because private well owners have so few resources to consult, they fear “getting in trouble” with local authorities, losing property value, or simply given a bad reputation for having a contaminated well. There is no mechanism or incentive for residents to report, for example to their Board of Health, and as a result, there is no way to share information about local PFAS levels with their neighbors. My goal is to ensure the best information and education for homeowners with private wells, and they’re not getting the information they need about local PFAS contamination.
For more information on local well monitoring and treatment from Schoepke, contact SafeWell.
Health concerns create change
Some towns such as Harvard require homeowners to test for PFAS before selling a house and Stow is considering doing the same, according to a WBUR report. Bolton has recommended testing be done before selling. As Schoepke pointed out, mitigating any potential problems before selling by installing a filtration system, if needed, could make the process faster.
When it comes to prevention, Massachusetts is among the states leading the nation in the effort to stop PFAS from entering the environment. State lawmakers, led by Rep. Kate Hogan of Stow and Sen. Julian Cyr of Truro, have introduced legislation (HD 3324 / SD 2053) to phase out the use of PFAS in almost all products sold in the state by 2030 and to implement many of the recommendations made last year by a task force that the lawmakers chaired. Other states like California are also leading in the effort to ban PFAS products. The goal is to reduce the flow of PFAS into the environment to cut down on future exposure. Unfortunately, these new measures don’t affect PFAS already in the environment.
What can you do to reduce PFAS?
Filtration of drinking water is one way to limit the consumption of PFAS. It also helps to avoid products that contain PFAS, including those that may lead to PFAS entering foods or ending up in landfills that may contaminate groundwater. Requesting manufacturers remove PFAS from products is another way consumers can create change.
If you’ve never seen a monarch caterpillar hatch, you’re certainly not alone. The eggs are about the size of the tip of a pencil. Yet a lot is going on inside!
Below is video taken (with a microscope attachment) as a baby caterpillar breaks out of its egg. It then eats the egg as its first meal.
We named this little guy Miles—inspired by the many miles monarchs travel on their trip to Mexico.
Miles’ egg was found on a plant growing next to a concrete parking lot in Sterling, MA. The egg was removed in case the plants were cut down, which they often are in parking lot cases. The shell darkens before hatching. That’s the caterpillar getting ready to break free.
After eating its eggshell, monarch caterpillars rely on milkweed plant leaves for all meals. Milkweeds are the only food for these caterpillars. There are a variety of types of milkweeds. If you order seeds, make sure to get milkweed plants that are native to your area.
It’s hard to tell how many monarch eggs or baby caterpillars like this are killed each year. They have a variety of predators. Habitat destruction and chemicals are a bigger threat to the species as a whole. The problem: they are often cut down as weeds, cleared for construction, or sprayed with chemicals.
Instead of clearing them or spraying them, consider planting native pollinator plants around them to give adult butterflies a great place to stop. Milkweed plants often have flowers that are pretty and complement other flowers well.
Will a monarch lay eggs if you have a milkweed plant ready? It’s hard to tell as there are dwindling numbers of monarchs, which are endangered. Those who track monarchs say improving habitat is critical.
The monarch butterfly’s lifecycle is pretty amazing to watch. After hatching, monarch caterpillars go through weeks of rapid growth. They have to literally shed their skin to grow. This includes busting out of their little face masks. This video (still using a microscope camera) shows one of little Miles’ molting sessions.
Many baby caterpillars like Miles won’t make it due to habit loss or spraying. Here are some resources to learn more about how to help:
Check back here in the coming weeks. We’ll post the video of Miles and friends as they continue their journey toward becoming butterflies. We’ll also look at the serious illness that is spreading among monarchs, why it can kill many, and what NOT to do if you see baby caterpillars.
Wouldn’t it be nice to bypass the gas stations, pull into your driveway, plug in your car, and have it ready each morning with a full charge? Better yet, what if solar panels on your roof were there to provide energy?
With recent gas prices, an increasing number of Americans and people around the globe are re-thinking electric vehicles (EVs). If you own a hybrid car — even if it doesn’t plug in — you may have heard the trade-in value is exceptionally high. If you’re looking to buy a hybrid or electric vehicle, you may be on a waiting list. That’s because EVs not only save money on gas, but also get good driving reviews. All-electric vehicles typically require less regular maintenance according to the U.S. Department of Energy.
What’s it like to own one? And do solar panels really charge a car or two? We heard from a couple of local EV owners who outlined their experiences. We also heard about the upcoming 2022 Auto Innovation Show being held in Lancaster on July 20th. Here’s a look at what organizers have to say and how EVs are working for local residents.
The Plug-in EV experience
“I bought two used EVs—a Ford CMax and a Chevy Volt—which get 45 miles on a charge and each cost less than $20,000 and are great cars,” says Lancaster resident Natascha Finnerty. “My work has EV charging, so I am commuting from Lancaster to Cambridge guilt-free!”
Finnerty is president of the Lancaster-based non-profit organization Nashoba Valley Climate Coalition (NVCC), which has the mission of reducing greenhouse gasses. The organization lobbies to create green energy policies, boosts awareness through events and partnerships, and encourages residents to do what they can to reduce energy use in the home, at work, and while in transit. Changes that reduce energy use can help the environment and the pocketbook. “I am going to start carpooling with a friend soon, since I do not need to use gas so I can help her save money,” adds Finnerty.
We have had a plug-in hybrid (Chevy Volt) since 2017,” notes Stow resident Rick Lent, who is a member of Sustainable Stow and is part of the leadership team of a local chapter of Elders Climate Action. Both organizations are committed to improving the environment. Lent emphasizes the practicality of EVs.
“The battery lets you drive about 50 miles before it switches over to the gas engine,” says Lent. “We find that we do almost all of our driving on that battery and only need the gas engine on long drives. About 90% of our driving is within that 60-mile range. I can even make it to Cambridge/Alewife. We have solar on our roof and so that can give us the energy we need to charge. However, we often charge at night so we aren’t using that source then.”
Even if you use most of your electricity at night, some power companies, including National Grid, offer solar net metering, which allows you to ‘export’ energy if you have a surplus. For instance, if your panels are generating a lot of energy during the day, but you use most of your energy at night, the amount you use at night is subtracted from what you’ve made during the day. The National Grid net metering program results in a credit on your bill when you generate more than you use. This can dramatically reduce or eliminate your electricity bill.
Not all power companies offer net metering. Lent, who lives in Stow, is part of Hudson Light and Power, which offers a solar rebate program instead. “Hudson Light credits our bill, which is low to begin with. I’ve had solar panels on my house in Stow since about 2014.”
Solar use apps allow you to track the amount the solar panels generate and compare that to how much you are using each day. Depending on how many panels you have, there is often an excess which can then be sold back to your electricity company, even if you’re charging an electric vehicle or two.
If you have enough sun hitting your roof, a solar company can check your average energy bill to determine how many solar panels it will take to supply that amount of energy. There are various state and federal programs to reduce the cost of solar. There are also programs that encourage the purchase and use of battery storage systems that can help the power companies during peak summer use by having individuals or companies send in excess power being generated. These can also replace generators often used during storms when the power is out.
When it comes to charging an EV at home, it’s simple. The existing outlets in your garage or house are enough to charge EVs. Special chargers are also available for speed charging. Similar to solar panels, there have been tax incentives to buy electric vehicles. In some cases, these include taking $7,500 tax credit and more incentives from the state, shaving the purchase price.
Do EVs make a difference?
Some claim that EVs use electricity, which has to be generated from fossil fuels. It’s been a concern, but studies have shown that even if you don’t have a solar roof, EVs still come out ahead—leading to an overall reduction in greenhouse gas release. That’s because increasingly electricity is being generated by renewable sources. A recent article in Forbes helped break down the numbers. It focuses on a new study that shows that EVs help reduce greenhouse gasses in all but the most coal-reliant countries. That’s because most countries have diversified their energy production to include renewable energy sources. That applies locally as well.
“I power my EV with solar, but if your house cannot support solar, people have the option to buy from community solar, and many towns are starting to offer 100% green energy in their town aggregation plans,” adds Finnerty.
Local EVs in the spotlight
If you’d like to learn about EVs from local residents, the upcoming 2022 Auto Innovation Show, held in collaboration with NVCC, will feature a number of EVs—both hybrids that use both electricity and gas and the more fully electric vehicles. The show is being held Wednesday, July 20 at Kimball Farms Lancaster from 4:30 pm to 7 pm. If you drive in an EV or electric plug-in hybrid, you can enter a drawing for a $25 gift card.
The shows can be helpful to those thinking about buying an EV because average residents who have used them—and aren’t trying to sell cars—are there to answer practical questions. During a past show, the conversations expanded to include electric lawnmowers, snow blowers, and what to think about when installing solar panels.
Overall, the 2022 Auto Innovation Show gives you a chance to get under the hood of electric cars and ask questions from average motorists who have used them. “Once you drive an EV, even if it’s a hybrid, I don’t think you can go back to a gas-powered car,” adds Lent. “Our next car will be all-electric.”
Please comment below if you’d like more information. Allow time for us to ask the experts for a reply. Thanks!